Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Federal College of Wildlife Management, ‎Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Nigeria

10.22120/jwb.2019.104859.1058

Abstract

The dearth of understanding the importance of bird species diversity and abundance contributes to the low rate of conservation and distribution of wildlife species in the ecosystem. Diversity and abundance are equally important factors for improving the ecological system. This study examined bird species diversity and abundance in Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Niger State, Nigeria. Line transect method was used to carry out birds’ survey at five different tracks, namely: Hussaini Mashi, Gilbert Child, Bukar Shuaib, Shehu Shagari and Mahmud Lapai Tracks. Data were obtained on birds’ species and abundance through the use of point count for bird survey. Frequency counts, percentages, means, Shannon-Weiner diversity Index, Simpson’s Diversity Index, Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyse data. A total number of 70 bird species in 31 families were recorded during the survey. Shannon-Weiner diversity Index results showed that Mahmud Lapai track had the highest diversity (4.185) compared to Hussaini Mashi (3.726), Gilbert Child (3.928), Shehu Shagari (4.106) and Bukar Shuaib (4.135) tracks respectively. The results also indicated that bird species diversity was not equally distributed in the tracks. ANOVA showed that bird species abundance was normally distributed and varied significantly (p < 0.05) among the study sites. The study concluded that bird species diversity and abundance are key contributors to a healthy ecological system. Birds are good indicators of the biological network thereby revealing the status of the park environmental degradation. The study recommended that stakeholders should improve on the enactment, legislation and enforcement of laws that will safeguard areas where fauna and flora are effectively conserved.

Keywords

Afolayan T.A. 1974. Methods of assessing the effects of hunting and grazing on different vegetation communities in savanna woodland. Technical paper presented at Kainji Lake Research Institute, New Bussa, Nigeria.

Afolayan T.A. 1977. Savanna structure and productivity in relation to burning and grazing regimes in Kainji Lake National Park. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Afolayan T.A. 1978. Savanna burning in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. East. Africa Wildlife Journal 16:245-255.

Ajayi S.S., Hall J.B. 1979. An Ecological Management Plan for the KLNP, Wildlife Management in Savannah Woodland, in: Ajayi S.S. and Halstead L.B. (Eds.), Recent progress in African Studies. Taylor and Francis Ltd., London, pp. 205-213.

Attica Park 2019. African-grey-hornbill. Attica Zoological Park: Our animals. https://www.atticapark.com/en/animals/african-grey-hornbill.594.html. Downloaded on 28 March 2019. 

Baker, K. 1997. Warblers of Europe, Asia and North Africa. London: Christopher Helm.

Bibi F., Ali Z. 2013. Measurement of diversity indices of avian communities at Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan. The Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 23(2): 469-474.

BirdLife International 2008. State of the world’s birds: indicators for our changing world. http://www.birdlife.org/sowb. Downloaded on 13 February 2017.

BirdLife International 2017. Species factsheet: Streptopelia turtur. http://www.birdlife.org. Downloaded on 13 February 2017.

BirdLife International 2018. State of the world’s birds. http://www.birdlife.org.  Downloaded on 24 March 2019.

Brown J.L. 1988. Book review: Helpers at bird's nests: A worldwide survey of cooperative breeding and related behaviour. Quarterly Review of Biology 63:247-249.

Bullock C. 2018. The Economic and Social Aspects of Biodiversity: Benefits and Costs of Biodiversity in Ireland. Published by the Stationery Office, Government Publications, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street., Dublin 2, 199 PP. 

Burgess N.D., Doggart. N., Lovett J. 2002. The Uluguru Mountains of
Eastern Tanzania: the effect of forest loss on biodiversity. Oryx 36: 140-152.

Chachu R.E.O. 1982. The vegetation of the Kainji Lake Basin. In: (Sanford, W. W., Yesuf H.M., Ayeni J.S.O. eds.), Nigerian Savanna, Selected Papers from the Man and Biosphere State of Knowledge Workshop; April 20th – 24th, 1980, published by Kainji Lake Research Institute., New Bussa, pp: 254-260.

Child G. 1972. Observations on Wild beast die-off in Botswana.  Bulawayo, Zimbabwe: National Museums of Rhodesia.

Child G. 1974. Kainji Lake Research Project, Nigeria: An ecological survey of the Borgu Game Reserve. Technical report 4. New York, USA: United Nations Development Programme.

Clarke K., Warwick R. 2001. Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Plymouth: PRIMER-E Ltd.

Doggart N., Lovett J., Mhoro B., Kiure J., Burgess N. 2005. Biodiversity surveys
in the Forest Reserves of the Uluguru Mountains. Technical paper for The
Wildlife Conservation Society of Tanzania and Tanzanian Forest Conservation Group. DSM., Tanzania. 8 – 18 pp.

Frontier-Tanzania 2005. Uluguru Component Biodiversity Survey 2005 (Volume III):
Uluguru North Forest Reserve. Bracebridge, Fanning, Howell, Rubio, St. John (eds). Society for Environmental Exploration and the University of Dar es Salaam; CARE-Tanzania, Conservation and Management of the Eastern Arc Mountain Forests (CMEAMF): Uluguru Component, Forestry and Beekeeping Divison of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. Dar es salaam.,Tanzania.1-78 pp.

Geerling C. 1976. 1:50,000 vegetation map of Borgu Game Reserve (FAO Working Document). FAO Forestry Department, FAO, Rome.

Hadley S.J.K., Hadley A.S., Betts M. 2012. Acoustic classification of multiple
simultaneous bird species: A multi- Instance multi- label approach. Journal of Acoustical Society of America 131 (6): 4640-4650.

Haldin M., Ulfvens J. 1987. On the efficiency of censusing water-birds by boat. Ornis Fennica 64:74-75.

Hoyo J., del  Elliott A., Sargatal J., Christie D A. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Huston M.A. 1994. Biological Diversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 3rd Edition, pp. 78.

Hutchison K. 1970. A test for comparing diversity based on the Shannon formula. Journal of Theoretical Biology 29: 151-154.

Ijeomah H.M., Ogbara D. 2013. Challenges of Wildlife Management in Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment 9(1):1-8.

IUCN 1994. Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Keay R.W.S 1959. An outline of Nigerian Vegetation. Lagos: Government Printers.

Keay  R.W.J. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Oxford Science Publication, New York, pp. 476.

Kinnaird M.F., O'Brien T.G. 2007. The Ecology and Conservation of Asian Hornbills: Farmers of the Forest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lameed G.A. 2011. Species diversity and abundance of wild birds in Dagona-Waterfowl Sanctuary, Borno State, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 5(10): 855-866.

Magurran A.E. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell.

Manu S.A. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the distribution of forest birds in South Western Nigeria with particular reference to Ibadan Malimbe and other malimbes. Oxford, England: University of Oxford.

Neave H.M., Cunningham R. B, Norton T. W., Nix H. A. 1996. Biological inventory for conservation evaluation iii. Relationships between Birds, Vegetation and environmental attributes in Southern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 197-218.

Ramchandra A.M. 2013. Diversity and richness of bird species in newly formed
habitats of Chandoli National Park in Western Ghats, Maharashtra State, India. Biodiversity Journal 4 (1): 235-242.

Ramsar Convention Bureau. 2000. Background papers on Wetland values and Function land, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Bureau http://www.ramsar.org/info/values.

Shannon C.E., Weaver W. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

Simpson E.H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688.

Skutch A. F., Gardner D. 1999. Helpers at birds' nests: a worldwide survey of cooperative breeding and related behavior. Iowa: University of Iowa Press

Smart M. 1997. The Ramsar Convention: Its role and wise use of wetland Biodiversity, in: Hails A.J. (ed), The convention on wetlands in the conservation and wise use of Biodiversity. Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland, Switzerland, pp. 1 – 168.

Tongco M.D.C. 2007. Purposive Sampling as a Tool for Informant Selection. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 5:147-158.

Tworek S. 2002. Different bird strategies and their responses to habitat changes in an
agricultural landscape. Ecological Research 17: 339-359.

Wasser D.E., Sherman P.W. 2010. Avian longevities and their interpretation under evolutionary theories of senescence. Journal of Zoology 280(2):103- 155.

Yanda P.Z., Munishi K.T. 2007. Hydrologic and land use/cover change analysis for the Ruvu River (Uluguru) and Sigi River (Eastern Usambara watersheds). Report for WWF/CARE Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 9-38 pp.