Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Technical Forestry Faculty Area, Indian Institute of Forest Management, India

2 Research Scholar, Zoology Department, Lucknow University, India

10.22120/jwb.2020.120246.1111

Abstract

The vulture, an immensely invaluable service provider, has been reported to have plummeted to its lowest numbers in the recent past, causing serious concerns. Hence, a habitat study has become imperative for planning the conservation and recovery of this endangered species. Central India (Madhya Pradesh), one of the strongholds of the vulture and the study site, supports numerous vulture locations and individuals belonging to seven vulture species. MaxEnt based species distribution modeling was chosen for the prediction of habitat suitability, to identify the prediction-impacting environmental variables, and to compare the area expanse of different species. Predicted potential habitat distributions maps of all vultures together and seven vulture species have been prepared. The performance accuracy of all the models was in a very high range (average AUC= 0.938). Though 77% - 89% area is negligibly suitable to different species, Himalayan Griffon, Cinereous and Egyptian vultures had larger areas as compared to Long-billed, Eurasian Griffon, White-rumped and Red-headed vultures. Out of 23 variables used in the modeling, landuse-land cover (forest and waterbody), isothermality and precipitation seasonality were the prominent determinants of the distribution of all the species. Agriculture and elevation played a minimal role. The data generated in the study could be used for the planning of vulture recovery by conservation and reintroduction. The less suitable areas could also be used for the management of ecologically plastic species by modifying such landscape into agroforestry including animal husbandry.

Keywords

Abolmaali S.M.R., Tarkesh M., Bashari H. 2018. MaxEnt modeling for predicting suitable habitats and identifying the effects of climate change on a threatened species, Daphne mucronata, in central Iran. Ecological Informatics 43:116–123.

Ahmad S., Rehman E. U., Kabir M., Bari F. 2020.  Population Status and Nesting Activity of White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Kotli District, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Ornithological Science 19: 55 – 61

Ali S., Ripley R. 1987. Compact handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Oxford University Press, Delhi, pp: 296-314.

Angelieri C.C.S., Adams-Hosking C., Ferraz K.M.P.M.B., de Souza M.P., McAlpine C.A. 2016. Using species distribution models to predict potential landscape restoration effects on Puma conservation. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0145232 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0145232.

Angelov I., Bougain C., Schulze M., Al Sariri T., McGrady M. & Meyburg B.-U. 2020. A globally-important stronghold in Oman for a resident population of the endangered Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus. Ardea 108(1): 1-10. doi:10.5253/arde.v108i1.a4

Ashraf U., Ali H., Chaudry M.N., Ashraf I., Batool A., Saqib Z. 2016. Predicting the potential distribution of Olea ferruginea in Pakistan incorporating climate change by using Maxent model. Sustainability 8:722. pp. 1-11. doi:10.3390/su8080722

Badia-Boher J.A., Sanz-Aguilar A., de la Riva M., Gangoso L., van Overveld T., Garcia-Alfonso M., Luzardo O.P., Suarez-Perez A., Donazar J.A. 2019. Evaluating european LIFE conservation projects: Improvements in survival of an endangered vulture. Journal of Applied Ecology 2019,1–10. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13350

Baldwin R.A. 2009. Use of maximum entropy modeling in wildlife research. Entropy 11:854-866. doi:10.3390/e11040854

Bamford A.J., Monadjem A., Hardy I.C.W. 2009. An effect of vegetation structure on carcass exploitation by vultures in an African savanna. Ostrich 80:135–137.

Baral N., Nagy C., Crain B.J., Gautam R. 2013. Population viability analysis of critically endangered White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis. Endangered Species Research 21: 65–76.

Begon M., Townsend C.R., Harper J.L. 2006. Ecology: from individuals to ecosystems. 4th ed. Malden (MA): Blackwell Publishing.

Birdlife International 2018. Birdlife data zone. http://datazone.birdlife.org/home

Bosch J., Mardones F., Perez A., Torre A.L., Munoz M.J. 2014. A maximum entropy model for predicting wild boar distribution in Spain. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 12(4): 984-999. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2014124-5717

Bridgeford P., Bridgeford M. 2003. Ten years of monitoring breeding Lappet-faced Vultures Torgos tracheliotos in the Namib-Naukluft Park, Namibia. Vulture News 48:3-11.

Brotons L., Manosa S., Estrada J. 2004. Modelling the effects of irrigation schemes on the distribution of steppe birds in Mediterranean farmland. Biodiversity and Conservation 13:1039–1058.

Buechley E.R., McGrady M.J., Coban E., Sekercioglu C.H. 2018. Satellite tracking a wide‑ranging endangered vulture species to target conservation actions in the Middle East and East Africa. Biodiversity Conservation https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1538-6

Cao B., Bai C., Zhang L., Li G., Mao M. 2016. Modeling habitat distribution of Cornus officinalis with Maxent modeling and fuzzy logics in China. Journal of Plant Ecology 9(6):742–751.

Chaudhry M.J.I. 2007. Are Cape Vultures (Gyps coprotheres) feeling the heat? Behavioural differences at north and south facing colonies in South Africa. University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Corovic J., Popovic M., Cogalniceanu D., Carretero M.A., Crnobrnja-Isailovic J. 2018. Distribution of the meadow lizard in Europe and its realized ecological niche model. Journal of Natural History 52:29-30.

Cuthbert R.J., Taggart M.A., Prakash V., Chakraborty S.S., Deori P., Galligan T., Kulkarni M., Ranade S., Saini M., Sharma A.K., Shringarpure R., Green R.E. 2014. Avian scavengers and the threat from veterinary pharmaceuticals. Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society B 369: 20130574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0574

de Frutos A., Olea P.P., Vera R. 2007. Analyzing and modelling spatial distribution of summering lesser kestrel: The role of spatial autocorrelation. Ecological Modelling 200:33–44.

Donazar J.A., Palacios C.J., Gangoso L., Ceballos O., Gonzalez M.J., Hiraldo F. 2002. Conservation status and limiting factors in the endangered population of Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) in the Canary Islands. Biological Conservation 107:89–97.

Dunn J.C., Buchanan G.M., Cuthbert R.J., Whittingham M.J., Mcgowan P.J.K. 2015. Mapping the potential distribution of the critically endangered Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa using proxy species and species distribution modelling. Bird Conservation International pp 1-13. doi:10.1017/S095927091400046X

Elith J, Leathwick J.R. 2009. Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction across space and time. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution Systematics 40:677–697

Elith J., Graham C.H., Anderson R.P., Dudık M., Ferrier S., Guisan A., Hijmans R.J., Huettmann F., Leathwick J.R., Lehmann A., Li J., Lohmann L.G., Loiselle B.A., Manion G., Moritz C., Nakamura M., Nakazawa Y., Overton J.M.C., Peterson A.T., Phillips S.J., Richardson K., Scachetti-Pereira R., Schapire R.E., Soberon J., Williams S., Wisz M.S., Zimmermann N.E. 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29:129–151

Esfanjani J., Ghorbani A., Chahouki M.A.Z. 2018. MaxEnt modeling for predicting impacts of environmental factors on the potential distribution of Artemisia aucheri and Bromus tomentellus-Festuca ovina in Iran. Polish Journal of Environment Studies 27(3):1041-1047.

Ferrier S. 2002. Mapping spatial pattern in biodiversity for regional conservation planning: Where to from here? Systematic Biology 51:331-363.

Freund M., Bahat O., Motro U. 2017. Breeding success and its correlation with nest-site characteristics: a study of a Griffon Vulture colony in Gamla, Israel Journal of Raptor Research 51(2):136–144.

Garbett R., Herremans M., Maude G., Reading R.P., Amar A. 2018. Raptor population trends in northern Botswana: A re-survey of road transects after 20 years. Biological Conservation 224:87-99.

Garcia-Ripolles C., Lopez-Lopez P., Garcia-Lopez F., Aguilar J.M., Verdejo J. 2005. Modelling nesting habitat preferences of Eurasian Griffon vulture Gyps fulvus in eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ardeola 52(2):287-304.

Gaston K.J. 1996. Species richness: measure and measurement. Biodiversity: a biology of numbers and difference (ed. K.J. Gaston), Blackwell Science, Oxford pp. 77–113.

Guisan A., Thuiller W. 2005. Predicting species distribution: Offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters 8:993–1009.

Guisan A., Zimmerman N.E. 2000. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling 135(2-3):147-186. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00354-9

Hawkins B.A., Porter E.E. 2003a. Relative influences of current and historical factors on mammal and bird diversity patterns in deglaciated North America. Global Ecology Biogeography 12:475-81.

Hawkins B.A., Porter E.E. 2003b. Water–energy balance and the geographic pattern of species richness of western Palearctic butterflies. Ecological Entomology 28:678–686.

Heikkinen R.K., Luoto M. 2006. Methods and uncertainties in bioclimatic envelope modelling under climate change. Progress in Physical Geography 6:751-777.

Henriques M., Granadeiro J.P., Monteiro H., Nuno A., Lecoq M., Cardoso P., Regalla A., Catry P. 2018. Not in wilderness: African vulture strongholds remain in areas with high human density. PLoS ONE 13(1): e0190594. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190594

Hernandez-Baz F., Romo H., Gonzalez J.M., Hernandez M.J.M., Pastrana R.G. 2016. Maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) of potential geographical distribution of Coreura albicosta (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Ctenuchina) in Mexico. Florida Entomologist 99(3):376-380. https://doi.org/10.1653/024.099.0306

Herrero J., Garcia-Serrano A., Couto S., Ortuno V., Garcia-Gonzalez R. 2006. Diet of wild boar Sus scrofa L. and crop damage in an intensive agroecosystem. European Journal of Wildlife Research 52:245-250.

Hill J.E., DeVault T.L., Beasley J.C., Rhodes Jr O.E., Belant J.L. 2018. Effects of vulture exclusion on carrion consumption by facultative scavengers. Ecology and Evolution. 2018;1–9. doi: 10.1002/ece3.3840

Howard A.M., Bernardes S., Nibbelink N., Biondid L., Presotto A., Fragaszy D.M., Madden M. 2012. A maximum entropy model of the bearded capuchin monkey habitat incorporating topography and spectral unmixing analysis. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume I-2, 2012 XXII ISPRS Congress, 25 August – 01 September 2012, Melbourne, Australia

ISFR 2011. India State Forest Report. 9.15 Madhya Pradesh. Forest Survey of India, Dehradun.

Janssen T.A.J., Ametsitsi G.K.D., Collins M., Adu-Bredu S., Oliveras I., Mitchard E.T.A., Veenendaal E.M. 2018. Extending the baseline of tropical dry forest loss in Ghana (1984–2015) reveals drivers of major deforestation inside a protected area. Biological Conservation 218:163–172.

Jha K.K. 2015. Distribution of vultures in Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 7(1):6750–6763.

Jha K.K. 2017. Vulture Atlas Central India – MP. Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, India.

Jha K.K. 2018. Mapping and management of vultures in an Indian stronghold. In: Geomatics and Conservation Biology. Editor: Michael O’Neal Campbell. pp 45-75. Nova Science Publishers, New York.

Kambale A.A. 2011. A study on breeding behaviour of oriental White-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in Anjarle and Deobag, Maharashtra. Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun.

Kanaujia A., Kushwaha S. 2014. Relationship between Water Bodies and Vulture Populations in Bundelkhand, India. Species 11(27):6-19.

Khanum R., Mumtaz A.S., Kumar S. 2013. Predicting impacts of climate change on medicinal asclepiads of Pakistan using Maxent modelling. Acta Oecologica 49:23-31.

Khatri P.C. 2013. Home range use of migratory vultures in and around Jorbeer, Bikaner (Rajasthan) India. Bioscience Discovery 4(1): 96–99.

Khatri P.C. 2015. The king is disappearing: A study of socio-ecological aspects of King Vulture or Red-Headed Vultures (Sarcogyps calvus) at Jorbeer, Bikaner. International Journal of Geology Earth & Environmental Sciences 5 (1):22-28.

Khosravi R., Hemami M-R., Malekian M., Flint A.L., Flint L.E. 2016. Maxent modeling for predicting potential distribution of goitered gazelle in central Iran: the effect of extent and grain size on performance of the model. Turkish Journal of Zoology 40:574-585.

Kumar S., Stohlgren T.J. 2009. Maxent modeling for predicting suitable habitat for threatened and endangered tree Canacomyrica monticola in New Caledonia. Journal of Ecology and Natural Environment 1(4):094-098.

Kushwaha S., Kanaujia A. 2009. Study on present status of Vulture (Gyps spp.) fauna in some regions of Bundelkhand, India. Research in Environment and Life Sciences 2(1): 7-10.

Li D.Q., Lu D.S., Wu M., Shao X.X., Wei J.H. 2018. Examining land cover and greenness dynamics in Hangzhou Bay in 1985–2016 using Landsat time-series data. Remote Sensing 10(1):22.

Liang L., Chen F., Shi L., Niu S. 2018. NDVI-derived forest area change and its driving factors in China. PLoS ONE 13(10): e0205885. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205885

Liberatori F., Penteriani V. 2001. A long-term analysis of the declining population of the Egyptian vulture in the Italian peninsula: distribution, habitat preference, productivity and conservation implications. Biological Conservation 101: 381–389.

Linkie M., Chapron G., Martyr D.J., Holden J., Leader-Williams N. 2006. Assessing the viability of tiger subpopulations in a fragmented landscape. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:576–586.

Lu M., Chen B., Liao X., Yue T., Yue H., Ren S., Li X., Nie Z., Xu B. 2017. Forest types classification based on multi-source data fusion. Remote Sensing 2017, 9:1153. doi:10.3390/rs9111153

Lv W., Li Z., Wu X., Ni W., Qv W. 2012. Maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) of potential geographical distributions of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China. International Conference on Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture V.D. Li and Y. Chen (Eds.): CCTA 2011, Part III, IFIP AICT 370, pp. 239–246, 2012. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-27275-2_26

Majgaonkar I., Bowden C.G.R., Quader S. 2018. Nesting success and nest-site selection of White-rumped Vultures (Gyps bengalensis) in western Maharashtra, India. Journal of Raptor Research 52(4):431-442.

Margalida A., Garcia D., Cortes–Avizanda A. 2007. Factors influencing the breeding density of Bearded Vultures, Egyptian Vultures and Eurasian Griffon Vultures in Catalonia (NE Spain): management implications. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 30.2:189-200.

Marinkovic S.P., Orlandic L.B., Skoric S.B., Karadzic B.D. 2012. Nest-site preference of Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) in Herzegovina. Archives of Biological Sciences, Belgrade 64(1):385-392. doi:10.2298/ABS1201385M

Mateo-Tomas P., Olea P.P. 2015. Livestock-driven land use change to model species distributions: Egyptian vulture as a case study. Ecological Indicators 57:331–340.

McClure C.J.W., Westrip J.R.S., Johnson J.A., Schulwitz S.E., Virani M.Z., Davies R., Symes A., Wheatley H., Thorstrom R., Amar A., Buij R., Jones V.R., Williams N.P., Buechley E.R., Butchart S.H.M. 2018. State of the world's raptors: Distributions, threats, and conservation recommendations. Biological Conservation 227:390–402.

Midgley G.F., Bond W.J. 2015. Future of African terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystems under anthropogenic climate change. Nature Climate Change 5:823–829.

Mihoub J-B., Jiguet F., Lecuyer P., Eliotout B., Sarrazin F. 2013. Modelling nesting site suitability in a population of reintroduced Eurasian black vultures Aegypius monachus in the Grands Causses, France. Oryx pp 1-9. doi:10.1017/S0030605312000634

Milchev B., Spassov N., Popov V. 2012. Diet of the Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) after livestock reduction in Eastern Bulgaria. North-Western Journal of Zoology 8(2):315-323.

Newbold T., Gilbert F., Zalat S., El-Gabbas A., Reader T. 2009. Climate-based models of spatial patterns of species richness in Egypt’s butterfly and mammal fauna. Journal of Biogeography 36:2085–2095.

Ogada D.L., Keesing F., Virani M.Z. 2012. Dropping dead: Causes and consequences of vulture population declines worldwide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1249:57–71. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06293.x

Pande S., Mestri P., Deshpande P., Warange A., Mahabal A. 2013. Promising trend of in situ breeding of Oriental White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Raigad District, Maharashtra, India: conservation implications for reintroduction of ex situ populations. Journal of Threatened Taxa 5(7):4106–4109. http://dx.doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o3330.4106-9.

Pearce J., Ferrier S. 2000. Evaluating the predictive performance of habitat models developed using logistic regression. Ecological Modelling 133: 225–245.

Phillips S.J., Anderson R.P., Schapire R.E. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modeling 190:231–59.

Phillips S.J., Dudik M. 2008. Modeling of species distributions with Maxent: new extensions and a comprehensive evaluation. Ecography 31:161-175.

Phipps W.L., Diekmannb M., MacTavishc L.M., Mendelsohnd J.M., Naidoo V., Wolter K., Yarnell R.W. 2017. Due South: A first assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on Cape vulture occurrence. Biological Conservation 210:16–25.

Prakash V., Bishwakarma M.C., Chaudhary A., Cuthbert R., Dave R., Kulkarni M., Kumar S., Paudel K., Ranade S., Shringarpure R., Green R.E. 2012. The population decline of Gyps Vultures in India and Nepal has slowed since veterinary use of diclofenac was banned. PLoS One, 7(11), e49118. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049118

Prakash V., Galligan T.H., Chakraborty S.S., Dave R., Kulkarni M.D., Prakash N., Shringarpure R.N., Ranade S.P., Green R.E. 2017. Recent changes in populations of Critically Endangered Gyps vultures in India. Bird Conservation International pp 1-16.  BirdLife International, 2017. doi:10.1017/S0959270917000545

Prakash V., Green R.E., Pain D.J., Ranade S.P., Saravanan S., Prakash N., Venkitachalam R., Cuthbert R., Rahmani A.R., Cunningham A.A. 2007. Recent changes in populations of resident Gyps vultures in India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 104 (2):129-135.

Prockow M., Prockow J., Blazej P., Mackiewicz P. 2018. The influence of habitat preferences on shell morphology in ecophenotypes of Trochulus hispidus complex. Science of the Total Environment 630: 1036-1043.

Purohit A., Saran R. 2013. Population status and feeding behavior of Cinereous Vulture (Aegypus monachus): Dynamics and implications for the species conservation in and around Jodhpur. World Journal of Zoology 8(3):312-318.

Qin A., Liu B., Guo Q., Bussmann R.W., Ma F., Jian Z., Xu G., Pei S. 2017. Maxent modeling for predicting impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of Thuja sutchuenensis Franch., an extremely endangered conifer from southwestern China. Global Ecology and Conservation 10:139–146.

Rodriguez J.P., Brotons L., Bustamante J., Seoane J. 2007. The application of predictive modelling of species distribution to biodiversity conservation. Diversity and Distribution 13:243–251.

Santangeli A., Spiegel O., Bridgeford P., Girardello M. 2018. Synergistic effect of land-use and vegetation greenness on vulture nestling body condition in arid ecosystems. Scientific Reports 8:13027.  doi:10.1038/s41598-018-31344-2

Schultz P. 2007. Does bush encroachment impact foraging success of the critically endangered Namibian Population of the Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres? University of Cape Town.  http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11892/49885

Sen B., Tavers J.P., Bilgin C.C. 2017. Nest site selection patterns of a local Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus population in Turkey. Bird Conservation International 27:568–581. doi:10.1017/S0959270916000411

Sheehan K.L., Esswein S.T., Dorr B.S., Yarrow G.K., Johnson R.J. 2017. Using species distribution models to define nesting habitat of the eastern metapopulation of double-crested cormorants. Ecology and Evolution 7:409–418.

Sinha A., Kumar A., Kanaujia A. 2017. Red-headed vulture: a solitary scavenger. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 8(7):18737-18741.

Stockwell D., Peters D. 1999. The GARP modelling system: Problems and solutions to automated spatial prediction. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 13:143-158.

Swets J.A. 1988. Measuring the accuracy of diagnostic systems. Science 240:1285–1293.

Thakur M.L., Kataria R.C. 2012. Breeding records and nest site preference of Indian White-backed Vulture in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh, India. International Journal of Science and Nature 3(2):350-353.

Thakur M.L., Narang S.K. 2012. Population status and habitat-use pattern of Indian white-backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment 4(7):173-180.

Tytar V.M., Nekrasova O.D. 2016. Species Distribution Modelling of the Caspian Whipsnake Dolichophis caspius (Squamata: Serpentes): A Tool for ranking conservation priorities in the western Pontic Steppe. Bulletin of St. Petersburg State University. Ser. 3. Biology. Issue. 3 pp. 143–148. DOI: 10.21638/11701/spbu03.2016.324

VanDerWal J., Shoo L.P., Johnson C.N., Williams S.E., Mooij A.E.W.M., DeAngelis E.D.L. 2009. Abundance and the environmental niche: Environmental suitability estimated from niche models predicts the upper limit of local abundance. The American Naturalist 174:282–291. doi:10.1086/600087

Venkitachalam R., Senthilnathan S. 2015. Breeding record of Indian Vulture (Gyps indicus) in Moyar Valley,Tamil Nadu, India. Current Science 109:258-259.

Virani M.Z., Monadjem A., Thomsett S., Kendall C. 2012. Seasonal variation in breeding Ruppell’s Vultures Gyps rueppellii at Kwenia, southern Kenya and implications for conservation. Bird Conservation International 22:260-269.

Vlachos C.G., Papageorgiu N.K., Bakaloudis D.E. 1998. Effects of the feeding station establishment on the Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus in Dadia Forest, north eastern Greece. In: B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, eds. Holarctic birds of prey. London, UK: W.W.G.B.P.

Whittaker R.J., Nogues-Bravo D., Araujo M.B. 2007. Geographical gradients of species richness: a test of the water energy conjecture of Hawkins et al. (2003) using European data for five taxa. Global Change Biology 16:76-89.

Wisz M.S., Hijmans R.J., Li J., Peterson A.T., Graham C.H., Guisan A. 2008. Effects of sample size on the performance of species distribution models. Diversity and Distribution 14:763–773.

Yang X., Kushwaha S.P.S., Saran S., Xuc J., Roy P.S. 2013. Maxent modeling for predicting the potential distribution of medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. in Lesser Himalayan foothills. Ecological Engineering 51:83– 87.

Zhao X., Hu H.F., Shen H.H., Zhou D.J., Zhou L.M., Myneni R.B., Fang J. 2015. Satellite-indicated long-term vegetation changes and their drivers on the Mongolian Plateau. Landscape Ecology 30(9):1599–1611.

Zuberogoita I., Zabala J., Martinez J.E., Gonzalez-Oreja J.A., Lopez-Lopez P. 2014. Effective conservation measures to mitigate the impact of human disturbances on the endangered Egyptian vulture. Animal Conservation 2014, doi:10.1111/acv.12107